Djemila (Tamazight: Ğamila, Arabic: جميلة, the Beautiful one, Latin: Cuicul or Curculum) is a mountain village in Algeria, near the northern coast east of Algiers, where some of the best preserved Berbero-Roman ruins in North Africa are found. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and it was inscribed as such in 1982. It was recognized because of its unique adaptation of Roman architecture to a mountain environment. Buildings present in Djemila include a theatre, two fora, temples, basilicas, arches, streets, and houses.
Djemila is situated in the region bordering the Constantinois and Petite Kabylie (Basse Kabylie). This is an exceptional antique site in Algeria which inherited significant historic value. The Roman ruins, particularly well preserved, organize themselves around the forum of the Harsh, a large paved square of which the entry is marked by a majestic arch.
Under the name of Cuicul, the city was built during the first century A.D. as a military garrison situated on a narrow triangular plateau. The terrain is somewhat rugged, being located at the confluence of two rivers. Cuicul's builders followed a standard plan with a forum at the center and two main streets, the Cardo Maximus and the Decumanus Maximus, composing the major axes.The city was initially populated by a colony of soldiers, and eventually grew to become a large trading market. The resources that contributed to the prosperity of the city were essentially agricultural (cereals, olive trees and farm).
During the reign of Caracalla, in the 3rd century, Cuicul's administrators took down some of the old ramparts and constructed a new forum. They surrounded it with larger and more impressive edifices than those which bordered the old forum. Building was hindered by the terrain so that the theatre had to be constructed outside the town walls, which was exceptional. During the 4th century Christianity became popular, and with this came the additions of a basilica and baptistry. They were located to the south of Cuicul, and are popular attractions today.
The city was slowly abandoned after the fall of the Roman Empire around the 5th century and 6th century. The Muslims later dominated the region but did not reoccupy the site of Cuicul, that they renamed under the name of Djemila, meaning "beautiful" in Arabic.